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Manufacturing process:
For commercial use, sodium formate is manufactured by absorbing carbon monoxide under pressure in solid sodium hydroxide at 130 °C and 6-8 bar pressure. This process produces a solution containing a molecular ratio of caustic soda to sodium formate above 1 to 1, continuing to react the carbon monoxide with the caustic soda until the molecular ratio of caustic soda to sodium formate in the solution does not substantially exceed 1 to 1.

CO + NaOH → HCO2Na

The low-cost and large-scale availability of formic acid by carbonylation of methanol and hydrolysis of the resulting methyl formate, sodium formate is usually prepared by neutralizing formic acid with sodium hydroxide. Sodium formate is formed as a by-product in the final step of the pentaerythritol synthesis and in the crossed Cannizzaro reaction of formaldehyde with the aldol reaction product trimethyl acetaldehyde
In the laboratory scale, sodium formate can be prepared by neutralizing formic acid with sodium carbonate. It can also be obtained by reacting chloroform with an alcoholic solution of sodium hydroxide.

CHCl3 + 4 NaOH → HCOONa + 3 NaCl + 2 H2O

or by reacting sodium hydroxide with chloral hydrate.

C2HCl3(OH)2 + NaOH → CHCl3 + HCOONa + H2O

The latter method is, in general, preferred to the former because the low aqueous solubility of CHCl3 makes it easier to separate out from the sodium formate solution, by fractional crystallization, than the soluble NaCl would be.

Sodium Formate Application:

Intermediate Chemicals:
Sodium formate chemically reduces other components by donating an electron or electrons. Formic acid and oxalic acid are prepared from sodium formate. Sodium formate is used in the manufacture of sodium hydrosulfite, a common reductive bleaching chemical.

Reductive bleaching agent:
Sodium formate is used to improve the brightness and color in dyeing/printing fabrics and paper.

Tanning of leather: 
Sodium formate stabilize the chromium, resulting in better leather quality. It is used for better penetration and tanning time reducing.

Deicing chemical:
Sodium formate is less corrosive and undergoes fast melting action relative to other deicing chemicals.

Buffering agent:
sodium formate improves both desulfurization efficiency and increasing lime absorbent utilization.

Sodium formate is also used in liquid detergent as a builder or an enzyme stabilizer. It is used in dyeing, in electroplating, in silage preservation

PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION
CAS NO. 141-53-7
EINECS NO. 205-488-0
FORMULA HCOONa
MOL WT. 68.01
H.S. CODE 2915.12
TOXICITY Oral, mouse LD50: 11200 mg/kg
SYNONYMS Formic acid, sodium salt; Salachlor; Formate de sodium; Formic acid, sodium salt; Mravencan sodny;
PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
PHYSICAL STATE White crystalline powder
MELTING POINT 261 C
BOILING POINT Decomposes
SPECIFIC GRAVITY 1.92
SOLUBILITY IN WATER 97 g/100 g
NFPA RATINGS Health: 2 Flammability: 0 Reactivity: 0
FLASH POINT Not considered to be a fire hazard
STABILITY Hygroscopic. Readily absorbs moisture from the air
SALES SPECIFICATION
APPEARANCE White crystalline powder
PURITY 95.0% min
NaOH 1.0% max
NaCl 1.0% max
NaCO3 3.0% max
NaS 0.1% max
MOISTURE 1.0% max
TRANSPORTATION
PACKING 25kgs in Bag, 20mts in container
HAZARD CLASS -
UN NO. Not regulated
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